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Pneumonia is an inflammation of the airspaces (alveoli; singular alveolus) within the lung most ordinarily caused by infections. Bacteria, viruses, or fungi (infrequently) can cause the infection. There also are a couple of noninfectious sorts of pneumonia that are caused by inhaling or aspirating foreign matter or toxic substances into the lungs.

Some cases of pneumonia are life-threatening. Around 50,000 people die annually of pneumonia within the U.S. Although anyone of any age are often affected, pneumonia is more common in elderly people and sometimes occurs when the system becomes weakened via a previous infection or another condition.

Pneumonia is usually more serious when it affects older adults, infants and young children, those with chronic medical conditions, or those with weakened immune function.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) may be a serious sort of viral infection caused by the SARS coronavirus.

The World Health Organization has designated SARS a worldwide health threat. In 2003, a plague killed approximately 774 people worldwide before it had been successfully contained.

SARS symptoms which are similar to those of the flu, including:

  1. fever over 100.4°F
  2. dry cough
  3. sore throat
  4. problems breathing, including shortness of breath
  5. headache
  6. body aches
  7. loss of appetite
  8. malaise
  9. night sweats and chills
  10. confusion
  11. rash
  12. diarrhea

Breathing issues will appear within two to 10 days after an individual is exposed to the virus. Health officials will quarantine an individual who presents the above symptoms and relations if they need a history of foreign travel. The person are going to be quarantined for 10 days to stop the virus from spreading.

Factors that increase your risk of contracting the disease include close contact with someone diagnosed with SARS and a history of visit the other country with a reported SARS outbreak.

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) may be a viral respiratory illness caused by a completely unique coronavirus (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, or MERS?CoV) that was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012. Coronaviruses are an outsized family of viruses which will cause diseases starting from the cold to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Typical Middle East respiratory syndrome symptoms comprise fever, cough and shortness of breath.

Pneumonia is common, but not always present. Gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhoea, have also been reported. Some laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV infection are reported as asymptomatic, meaning that they are doing not have any clinical symptoms, yet they're positive for MERS-CoV infection following a laboratory test. Most of those asymptomatic cases are detected following aggressive contact tracing of a laboratory-confirmed case. About 35% of reported patients with MERS have deceased.

Although most of human cases of MERS-CoV infections are attributed to human-to-human infections in health care settings, current scientific evidence suggests that dromedary camels are a serious reservoir host for Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV and an animal source of MERS infection in human beings. However, the precise role of dromedaries in transmission of the virus and therefore the exact route(s) of transmission are unknown.

COVID-19 stands for coronavirus disease of 2019 and may be a respiratory tract infection caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The term “novel coronavirus” simply means this is often a replacement sort of coronavirus. A coronavirus may be a sort of virus that has crown-like spikes around it. That’s why it's the word “corona” in it. The word “corona” is Latin for “crown.”

COVID-19 is defined because the disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The name was given by the planet Health Organization (WHO) on February 11, 2020. Before this, SARS-CoV-2 had not been seen before in humans.

The first human cases of coronavirus infections appeared in Wuhan, China in late 2019. Healthcare workers noticed a pattern of illness that they had never seen before among the population. Common symptoms included fever, body aches, tiredness, and difficulty breathing caused by pneumonia (lung infection). The virus, and therefore the disease it causes, has since spread worldwide and been classified by the WHO as a worldwide pandemic.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus spreads from person to person similarly to the flu. This usually happens when an infected person coughs or sneezes near people. It’s going to even be possible to urge sick if you touch a surface that has the virus thereon then touch your mouth, nose, or eyes. In labs, the virus might be detected on surfaces for up to three days counting on the sort of surface. Samples of surfaces which will hold the virus are hard surfaces like door handles, counters, phones, and pens, but probably softer surfaces too. It’s important to be very careful when sharing personal items like phones and be mindful of others you inherit contact with.

Scientists are currently understand that the coronavirus seems to spread most when people are screening symptoms. the rationale it's spread so quickly is that a lot of people can spread the coronavirus before developing symptoms, or without having symptoms in the least. Far more testing of non-symptomatic people is required to be ready to get an entire understanding of exactly how big a drag this is often.


Symptoms usually start 4 days after an individual is infected with the virus. But in some people it can take as little as 2 days or up to 14 days.

People with COVID-19 can experience a good range of symptoms, from mild cold-like symptoms to severe illness. Consistent with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), you'll be infected with the coronavirus if you have:

  • Fever or chills
  • Cough
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle or body aches
  • Headache
  • New loss of taste or smell
  • Sore throat
  • Congestion or runny nose
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Diarrhea

People don’t usually get of these symptoms directly. Often, the symptoms change because the illness progresses.

Around 80% of individuals have non-severe symptoms. The remainder have a life-threatening illness requiring hospitalization: 15% get a severe pneumonia requiring oxygen, and therefore the remaining 5% get a severe pneumonia plus other problems requiring medical care treatment.


When a report described how a girl in Wuhan, China, passed the coronavirus to 5 relations without ever becoming sick herself — albeit she tested positive for the virus.

Other cases of asymptomatic coronavirus infection have also been reported:

In a study of cases on the Princess cruise liner, quarantined off the coast of Japan in February 2020, 634 people out of three, 711 onboard tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. About half these were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. Supported statistical modeling and what's known about the time period of the virus, the researchers think truth number of asymptomatic cases is eighteen percent.

In March 2020, a smaller study on a COVID-19 outbreak during a nursing facility in King County, WA, reported 23 residents with a positive coronavirus test. Thirteen of those were asymptomatic at the time of the test, but 10 of them went on to develop symptoms over subsequent week, leaving 3 people out of 23 (13%) who didn't.

COVID-19 are often diagnosed similarly to other conditions caused by viral infections: employing a blood, saliva, or tissue sample. However, most tests use a cotton swab to retrieve a sample from the within of your nostrils.

The CDC, some state health departments, and a few commercial companies conduct tests.

On April 21, 2020, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the utilization of the primary COVID-19 home testing kit.

Using the cotton swab provided, people are going to be ready to collect a nasal sample and mail it to a delegated laboratory for testing.

Talk to your doctor directly if you think that you've got COVID-19 otherwise you notice symptoms.

  • Stay home and monitor your symptoms
  • Come into the doctor’s office to be evaluated
  • Go to the hospital for more urgent care.

Types of tests:

  1. Molecular Test - viral test, macromolecule amplification test (NAAT), RT-PCR test, LAMP test
  2. Antigen Test - Rapid diagnostic assay
  3. Antibody Test - Serological test, serology, blood test, serology test

Currently there is no treatment specifically approved for COVID-19, and no cure for an infection, although treatments and vaccines are currently under study.

Instead, treatment focuses on managing symptoms because the virus runs its course.

Seek medical help if you think that you've got COVID-19. Your doctor will recommend treatment for any symptoms or complications that develop and allow you to know if you would like to hunt emergency treatment.

Other coronaviruses like SARS and MERS also are treated by managing symptoms. In some cases, experimental treatments are tested to ascertain how effective they’re.

Examples of therapies used for these illnesses include:

  • antiviral or retroviral medications
  • breathing support, like mechanical ventilation
  • steroids to scale back lung swelling
  • blood plasma transfusions

An important characteristic of an infectious disease, particularly one caused by a unique pathogen like SARS-CoV-2, is its severity, the last word measure of which is its ability to cause death. Fatality rates help us understand the severity of a disease, identify at-risk populations, and evaluate quality of healthcare.

There are two measures accustomed assess the proportion of infected individuals with fatal outcomes. The primary is infection fatality ratio (IFR), which estimates this proportion of deaths among all infected individuals. The second is case fatality ratio (CFR), which estimates this proportion of deaths among identified confirmed cases.

To prevent infection & to end transmission of COVID-19, do the following:

  1. Wash your hands regularly with soap and water, or clean them with alcohol-based hand rub.
  2. Maintain a minimum of 1 meter distance between you and other people coughing or sneezing.
  3. Avoid touching your face.
  4. Cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
  5. Stay home if you are feeling unwell.
  6. Refrain from smoking and other activities that weaken the lungs.
  7. Practice physical distancing by avoiding unnecessary travel and staying faraway from large groups of individuals.

COVID-19 usually affect the respiratory tracts of birds and mammals, including human beings. Doctors associate them with the cold, bronchitis, pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These viruses also can affect the gut.

Vaccines usually requires years of research and testing before reaching the health center, but scientists are battling to stock a secure and operative coronavirus vaccine by next year.

Researchers are testing 37 vaccines in clinical trials on humans, and a minimum of 91 preclinical vaccines are under active investigation in animals.

Work began in January 2020 with the decrypting of the SARS-CoV-2 genome.

The primary vaccine safety trials in humans started in March, but the road ahead remains uncertain. Some trials will fail, et al. may end without a transparent result. But a couple of may achieve stimulating the system to supply effective antibodies against the virus.

The COVID-19 pandemic is way quite a health crisis: it's affecting societies and econ­omies at their core. While the impact of the pandemic will vary from country to country, it'll presumably increase poverty and inequalities at a worldwide scale, making achievement of SDGs even more urgent. Assessing the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on societies, economies and vulnerable groups is prime to tell and tailor the responses of governments and partners to get over the crisis and make sure that nobody is left behind during this effort.

Without urgent socio-eco­nomic responses, global suffering will escalate, jeopardizing lives and livelihoods for years to return. Immediate development responses during this crisis must be undertaken with an eye fixed to the longer term. Development trajectories within the long-term are going to be suffering from the alternatives coun­tries make now and therefore the support they receive.

The United Nations has mobilized the complete capacity of the UN system through its 131 country teams serving 162 countries and territories, to support national authorities in developing public health preparedness and response plans to the COVID-19 crisis.

As the coronavirus pandemic rapidly sweeps across the globe, it's inducing a substantial degree of fear, worry and concern within the population at large and among certain groups especially, like older adults, care providers and other people with underlying health conditions.

In public psychological state terms, the most psychological impact so far is elevated rates of stress or anxiety. But as new measures and impacts are introduced: Especially quarantine and its effects on many people’s usual activities, routines or livelihoods; levels of loneliness, depression, harmful alcohol and drug use, and self-harm or suicidal behavior also are expected to rise.

In populations already heavily affected, like Lombardy in Italy, problems with service access and continuity for people with developing or existing psychological state conditions also are now a serious concern, alongside the psychological state and well-being of frontline workers. As a part of its public health response, WHO has worked with partners to develop a group of latest materials on the psychological state and psychosocial support aspects of COVID-19.